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Prague, Czech Praha, The Czech Republic's capital and administrative centre of the Central Bohemia district, Basin of the Prague basin on both sides of the River Vltava is located in m, is administratively a district with 496 km2 and has approximately 1,27 Mio. Inhabitants.
The city's Catholic Archbishop seat, economic, Scientific and cultural centre of the country. This is substantiated by the 1348 founded Charles University, Technical and other colleges. We find here also academies of fine arts, a Conservatory, some well-known research institutes, Many libraries, scientific societies, including the Academy of Sciences and the Goethe-Institut. Several museums and art galleries, about 20 Theatre, two opera houses, a very good Planetarium, Botanical and Zoological Garden, in the suburb Barrandov Film Studios; Industrial, Trade- and financial centre with machines- and vehicle construction, Food- and fine food, chemical, pharmaceutical, electronic, precision engineered, optical u. a. Industry, Commercial printing & publishing; Centre of Ruzyně international airport and river port (Beginning of the Vltava River boat trip); Metro (Since 1974).
In dominant position of the Prague Castle, the Hradčany, the oldest foundations in the 9./10. Rich century (Today the seat of the President). The late-Gothic Vladislav Hall belonging to the old palace (completed 1502), the construction of the Ludwig (1503-10) and the old Parliament Hall (At the end of the 14. Century, Renaissance equipment 1559-63). Centre of the castle is the Gothic St. Vitus Cathedral (1385 by P. Completed in Parler). Interior: u. a. Tombs of the Přemyslid dynasty and 21 Portrait busts of P. Parler in the Triforium.
The monastery of Saint George with the Romanesque Basilica is one of the internal system of the Prague Castle (Middle 12. Century). Outside of the castle complex numerous palaces: u. a. Schwarzenberg Palace (1545-63); Sternberg Palace (1698-1730, Today National Gallery), Černin Palace (1669 following), the Belvedere castle (1536-63), the Loretokloster (1600 following) and the Strahov Monastery (12.-18. Century, Today the Museum of national literature). Below the Castle, she stretches to the Vltava River Malá strana with the Saint Nicholas Church (1703 following, by C. and K. I. Dientzenhofer) and the pilgrimage church of Maria de Victoria (originally 1611-13, rebuilt; with the Prague Christ child. ").
The Charles Bridge (1357 following, Gothic bridge, Baroque sculptures) leads in the historical Old town (UNESCO World Heritage site): in the Centre (Old town square) the old town hall (1338 following) with the astronomical clock (1410) and the Gothic tyn Church (1135 founded in); the carolinum in the old town are also (Seat of the University, Core construction 14. Century), the Gothic Bethlehem Chapel, Sermon Church of J. Hus (1391 following, 1786 torn down, restored 1950-52), the Klementinum (Jesuit College, 1556 following) and the Clam-Gallas Palace (1713 following j. B. Fischer von Erlach).
The Neustadt was off 1348 two elongated seats set between old town and Vysehrad: Karlsplatz with the new town City Hall (14.-16. Century) and Wenceslas square (National Museum and statue of St. Wenceslas, completed 1922). Other significant buildings of the new town are u. a. the Gothic church of of the snow and the National Theatre (1868-81).
Of the former Jewish quarter (Josefstadt) are u. a. the early Gothic old-new synagogue (to 1270) and the Jewish cemetery. The buildings of the 20. Century v are. a. Buildings of Art Nouveau (u. a. Grand Hotel Europe, 1906) and Czech Cubism remarkable; In addition to reconstruction- and restoration measures change v. a. Hotels, Office- and commercial buildings the city image, u. a. Office building Prodan (» Ginger and Fred.) by F. O. Gehry and Vladimir Milunić (1994-96).
Prague has evolved from several settlements between the two castles of Vyšehrad and Hradčany. 973 was the Roman Catholic Diocese of Prague (Since 1344 Roman Catholic Archdiocese of) founded in. Through intensive, also German colonization was the so-called lesser, the 1257 Received city rights; the old town had city rights since 1230. Heyday under Emperor Karl IV. (Since 1346 his residence): u. a. 1348 Construction of the Neustadt and founding the University.
The movement of the J went from Prague. Hus (1. Prague defenestration, 30. 7. 1419; Hussites) and the Bohemian revolt (2. Prague defenestration, 23. 5. 1618; Thirty years war) from. 1784 Association of the four cities in Prague (Old town, Malá strana, Neustadt, Hradčany); 1848 Centre of failed nationaltschechischen revolution. 1918-92 capital of Czechoslovakia. 1939 occupied by German troops, then (until may 1945, Invasion of Soviet troops) Capital of the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. In August 1968 violent suppression of Prague Spring. Since 1969 Capital of the Czech Republic (within the Federation); Since 1993 Capital of the independent Czech Republic.
The Peace of Prague between Saxony and Emperor Ferdinand II.. (30. 5. 1635), the joined many Protestant Imperial estates, provided a limited definition of the religious Status quo; Kursachsen received the upper- and lower Lusatia. -The Peace of Prague most 23. 8. 1866 ended the Austro-Prussian War.
Prague Spring: Designation for the liberalisation- and democratization process in the ČSSR from January to August 1968 under A. DUBČEK ("Socialism with a human face.", without however question the Alliance with the Soviet Union). After the economy should o. New economic model Šik developed»» (Connection free-market elements with State economic planning and labour councils in the sense of a socialist market economy) designed, the cultural politics of u. a. by increasing press- and freedom of expression be liberalised, as well as the political and social life for citizens- or civil society initiatives room offer.
The reform policies and the democratization process itself soon verselbstständigende were enthusiastically absorbed by the population. By the military intervention of the Soviet Union and four other countries of the Warsaw Pact most 20./21. 8. 1968 forcibly prevented (94 Death toll, about 300 Serious injuries; pseudo legitimized by the Brezhnev doctrine). «In the» Moscow Protocol «from the». 26. 8. 1968 the Politburo of the KPČ deported to the USSR was forced, the removal of the reforms to agree ("Normalization."). -The defeat of the Prague Spring brought the end of Communist reform attempts; Representatives of the Prague Spring were winners of the citizen movement coming into being in the ČSSR.
Economy and infrastructure
The capital of the Czech Republic belongs traditionally to the main economic centres of the country. Which is significant Tourism with 5,5 Mio. Overnight guests in the year 2013, of which 86 Percentage foreigners. Office building, Luxury apartments, Incurred by hotels, at the same time, the number of residents has become of 100.000 reduced to one-fifth.
Prague has a significant Film industry and a sizeable manufacturing industry. Compared with the GDP of the EU, expressed in purchasing power standards, reached Prague in the year 2006 an index of 162,3 Percent (EU-27:100).
The scope for two industries occupy an outstanding position: the production of Food and electrical and optical equipment, the production is particularly strong from Broadcasting– and Television sets represented (20 Percent of the total production).
These two sectors are followed by the printing industry.
But also more traditional industries are located in the urban area:
- Metal processing
- Mechanical engineering
- Building materials
- Vehicle construction
Other industries play a rather subordinate role.
Prague's mild climate is both by Atlantic, as also continental side affects. The average annual temperature is around the 8 ° Celsius. Minus values reached in the winter last (2006) by to −17 ° Celsius, Plus values in summer up to 35 ° Celsius. The most precipitation falls in the summer half-year (May: 77 mm), the winter is relatively dry (October to March: 23 until 32 mm). Over the long-term agents of years 1961 until 1990, an increase in temperature by about one degree and a decrease of in rainfall are in recent years around 20 Millimeters to watch.
Sources: H. Pleticha u. Wolfgang Müller: Prague. The Golden City in history u. Present; D. Arens: Prague. Culture u. «History of» Golden City»; H. Salfellner: Prague. The Golden City; Prague, edited v. M. Reincke. Prague at Wikipedia.org