Prague, Czech Praha, Capital of the Czech Republic and the administrative center of the Central Bohemian Region, lies in a valley (Prague Basin) on either side of the Vltava River, forms administratively a district with its own 496 km2, 1,27 My. Residents; Catholic archbishopric; economic, scientific and cultural center of the country, Charles University (1348 founded), Institute of Technology and. a. Universities; Art Academy, Conservatory, Research Institute, numerous libraries, scientific societies, including the Academy of Sciences, Goethe-Institut (since 1990); several museums and art galleries, about 20 Theater, two opera houses; Planetarium, botanical and zoological garden, Barrandov film studios in the district; Industry-, Trade- and financial center with machines- and vehicle, Food- and beverage, chemical, pharmaceutical, electronic, precision engineering, optical and. a. Industry, Commercial printing and publishing; Transport center with international Ruzyně airport and river port (Beginning of the Vltava shipping); Subway (since 1974).
In a dominant position, the Prague Castle, the Hradschin, whose oldest foundations in the 9./10. Rich Century (now the seat of the President). To the old palace belonging to the late Gothic Vladislav Hall (completed 1502), the Ludwigsbau (1503–10) and the old assembly hall (End of the 14. Century, Renaissanceausstattung 1559-1563). Center of the castle is the gothic St. Vitus Cathedral (started 1344, Choir, Transept and the south tower 1385 of P. Parler completed; Interior decoration: in. a. Tombs of the Přemysliden and 21 Portrait busts of P. Im talking Triforium). For internal system of Hradcany the Monastery of Saint George is one of the Romanesque basilica (Not 12. Century). Outside the castle complex numerous palaces: in. a. Schwarzenberg-Palais (1545–63); Sternberg-Palais (1698–1730, now the National Gallery), Czernin-Palais (1669 following), the pleasure palace Belvedere (1536–63), Loreta Monastery (1600 following) and the Strahov Monastery (12.–18. Century, today Museum of National Literature). Below the castle extends to Moldova Lesser Town with the St. Nicholas Church (1703 following, of C. and K. I. Dietzenhofer) and the Sanctuary of Maria de Victoria (Originally 1611-13, later converted; with the "Infant Jesus of Prague").
The Charles Bridge (1357 following, Gothic Brückentürme, Baroque sculptures) leads to the historic Old town (UNESCO World Heritage Site): in the center (Old Town Square) the Old Town Hall (1338 following) with Astronomical Clock (1410) and the Gothic Tyn Church (1135 founded); in the old town also include the Carolinum (Seat of the University, Kernbau 14. Century), the Gothic Bethlehem Chapel, Predigtkirche J. House (1391 following, 1786 demolished, restored 1950-52), das Clementinium (Jesuitenkolleg, 1556 following) and the Clam-Gallas Palace (1713 following by J. B. Fischer von Erlach).
The Neustadt was from 1348 created by two elongated spaces between the Old Town and Vyšehrad: Karlsplatz with the New Town Hall (14.–16. Century) and Wenceslas Square (with National Museum and statue of St. Wenceslas, completed 1922). Other important buildings of the new city are u. a. the Gothic St. Mary Snow Church and the National Theatre (1868–81). From the former Jewish quarter (Josefstadt) are u. a. the early Gothic Old-New Synagogue (a 1270) obtained and the Jewish cemetery. Of the buildings of the 20. Century are v. a. Buildings of Art Nouveau (in. a. Grand Hotel Europe, 1906) and the Czech Cubism remarkable; next reconstruction- change and restoration measures v. a. Hotels, Office- and commercial buildings cityscape, in. a. Bürohaus Rašín (»Ginger and Fred«) of F. The. Gehry and Vladimir Milunić (1994–96).
Prague grew out of several settlements between the two castles Vysehrad Castle and Hradcany. 973 was the bishopric of Prague (since 1344 Archdiocese) founded. Through intensive, also German settlement arose the so-called Lesser, who 1257 Received city rights; the old town had city status since 1230. Flowering period under Emperor Charles IV. (since 1346 whose residence): in. a. 1348 Construction of the new town and foundation of the University.
From Prague the movement of the J went. House (1. Defenestration of Prague, 30. 7. 1419; Hussiten) and the Bohemian revolt (2. Defenestration of Prague, 23. 5. 1618; Thirty Years' War) from. 1784 Association of the four towns of Prague (Old town, Lesser Town, Neustadt, Hradschin); 1848 Center of failed national Czech revolution. 1918-92 Capital of Czechoslovakia. 1939 occupied by German troops, after that (to May 1945, Soviet invasion) Capital of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. In August 1968 violent suppression of the Prague Spring. Since 1969 Capital of the Czech Republic (within the Federation); since 1993 Capital of the independent Czech Republic.
The Peace of Prague between Saxony and Emperor Ferdinand II. (30. 5. 1635), which was joined by many Protestant imperial estates, provided for a limited commit the religious status quo; Electorate received the top- and Lower Lusatia. - The Peace of Prague am 23. 8. 1866 ended the German war.
Prague Spring: Name for the liberalization- and democratization process in Czechoslovakia from January to August 1968 under A. Oakling ("Socialism with a human face", without providing, however, the alliance with the USSR in question). The businesses for the O. Šik developed "new economic model" (Connection market elements with state economic planning and workers' councils in terms of a socialist market economy) designed, cultural policies and. a. by increasing Press- and freedom of expression are liberalized, as well as the political and social life for citizens- or provide space civil society initiatives.
The reform policy and soon verselbstständigende democratization process was enthusiastically received by the population; This show u. a. the non-Communist Initiative »Club volunteers nonparty" (Czech abbreviation KAN), the most 18. 5. 1968 occurred with a resolution to the public, and the "Manifesto of the 2000 Words "from 27. 6. (Ludvik Vaculik). By the military intervention of the Soviet Union and four other Warsaw Pact countries (about 14 000 Hand combat troops and 4 500 Tank; held two divisions of the NVA on GDR territory near the border in readiness) am 20./21. 8. 1968 prevented by force (94 Fatality, about 300 Seriously injured; pseudo-legitimized by the Brezhnev Doctrine); as the driving force acted v. a. The. Ulbricht (in. a. Secret meeting of the General Secretaries of the CPSU, the SED and the Hungarian, Polish and Bulgarian Communist Party on 18. 8.). In the "Moscow Protocol" from 26. 8. 1968 the deported to the USSR Politburo was forced KPČ, consent to the degradation of the reforms ("Normalization"). - The suppression of the Prague Spring brought an end to communist reform attempts; Representatives of the Prague Spring were the bearers of the budding civil rights movement in Czechoslovakia (in. a. Charter 77).
Economy and infrastructure
The capital of the Czech Republic is traditionally one of the most important commercial centers of the country. Important is tourism with 5,5 My. Overnight visitors per year 2013, thereof 86 Percent foreigners. Office block, Luxury apartments, Hotels are incurred, at the same time, the number of residents from the center of 100.000 reduced to a fifth.
Prague has a significant film industry and a sizable manufacturing. Compared with the GDP of the EU, expressed in purchasing power standards, reached Prague in 2006 an index of 162,3 Percent (EU-27:100).
Terms of scope here take two sectors a prominent position: the preparation of foodstuffs and of electrical and optical devices, particularly strong is the production of radio- represented and TVs (20 Percent of the total production).
They are followed by two industries, the printing industry.
In the urban area but also more traditional industries are located:
- Metal processing
- Mechanical Engineering
- Building materials
Other industries play a minor role.
Prague's mild climate is both Atlantic, influenced and continental page. The mean annual temperature is around 8 °Celsius. Negative values in winter reached last (2006) up to -17 ° Celsius, Plus values in summer to 35 °Celsius. Most precipitation falls in the summer months (More: 77 mm), the winter season is relatively dry (October to March: 23 to 32 mm). Compared to the long-term funding of the annual 1961 to 1990, in recent years, an increase in temperature by about one degree values and a decrease in precipitation around 20 Observed millimeter.
Swelling: H. Pleticha in. Wolfgang Müller: Prague. The Golden City in History &. Presence; D. Arens: Prague. Culture u. History of the "Golden City"; H. Salfellner: Prague. The Golden City; Prague, edited v. M. Reincke. Prague at Wikipedia.org